EU’s Copernicus: October 2019 temperatures were above 1981-2010 average
Globally, October 2019 was 0.69 degrees Celsius warmer than the average October from 1981-2010, making it by a narrow margin the warmest October in this data record, according to a report by Copernicus, the European Earth Observation Programme.
Europe generally saw above-average temperatures, with the exception of most of the north and north-west of the continent.
October temperatures in 2019 were above the 1981-2010 average for most of Europe, especially so in the east and south-east. Below-average temperatures occurred over most of the north and north-west of the continent.
Temperatures were much above average in large parts of the Arctic, while much of western US and Canada experienced much below average temperatures.
Elsewhere, temperatures over the northern hemispheric land masses were markedly above average over parts of the Arctic, over the eastern US and Canada, and over the Middle East and much of North Africa and Russia. Temperatures were likewise well above average over southern Brazil, southern Africa, western and southern Australia, and most of eastern Antarctica.
Temperatures over land were substantially below average over a region encompassing much of the western US and Canada. They were also below average in parts of tropical Africa and Antarctica, and to a lesser degree over several other regions.
Regions of below-average temperature occurred over all major oceans, including the tropical eastern Pacific and the ice-covered Weddell Sea. Air temperatures over sea were nevertheless predominantly higher than average, especially so over several Arctic and Antarctic seas and over the north-eastern Pacific Ocean.
Copernicus is the European system for monitoring the Earth and is coordinated and managed by the European Commission.
The development of the observation infrastructure is performed under the aegis of the European Space Agency for the space component and by the European Environment Agency and EU countries for the in situ component.
It consists of a complex set of systems which collect data from multiple sources: earth observation satellites and in situ sensors such as ground stations, airborne sensors, and sea-borne sensors. It processes this data and provides users with reliable and up-to-date information through a set of services related to environmental and security issues.