Global growth, which rose by an estimated 3.1 per cent in 2023, is projected to slow to 2.9 per cent in 2024 and then increase to three per cent in 2025, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Economic Outlook, Interim Report February 2024.
High-frequency activity indicators generally suggest a continuation of recent moderate growth, the OECD said.
Across countries, clear signs of strong near-term momentum continue in India, relative weakness in Europe, and mild near-term growth in most other major economies, it said.
The OECD said that global growth proved surprisingly resilient in 2023, with lower energy prices and fading supply chain pressures helping inflation to decline more quickly than anticipated.
However, recent indicators point to some moderation of growth, the report sad.
In the absence of further adverse supply shocks, cooling demand pressures should allow headline and core inflation to fall further in most economies.
By the end of 2025 inflation is projected to be back to target in most G20 countries.
Geopolitical risks remain high, particularly in relation to the ongoing conflict in the Middle East following the terrorist attacks on Israel by Hamas, the OECD said.
Further upside surprises in inflation could trigger sharp corrections in financial asset prices as markets price in that policy rates may be higher for longer periods of time.
Both headline and core inflation fell during 2023, the report sad.
Some of the factors assisting disinflation over the past year are now dissipating or reversing, while others are vulnerable to geopolitics, extreme weather or unpredictable events.
The OECD said that with inflation still above target, and unit labour cost growth generally remaining above levels compatible with medium-term inflation objectives, it is too soon to confirm whether the inflationary episode that began in 2021 is over.
“Government spending needs to focus more on investment in the areas that drive sustainable growth. Especially human capital,” the OECD said.
“Recent OECD PISA scores show educational outcomes are falling, just as the skills needs of the future economy are rising.”
Public debt levels are generally higher than before the pandemic, and in many countries at levels relative to GDP seen before only in wartime.
“Governments need to adopt sustainable fiscal plans that balance intergenerational needs and prepare economies for the future,” the organsation said.
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